Radio Broadcasting in Hungary began on December 1, 1925, but although that was the beginning of regular broadcasting, experimental work had been going on previously for quite some time, with the transmission of music and news bulletins. Hungary was the first country to use the Telephonograph in 1894. It was invented by Tivadar Puskás, who later collaborated with Thomas Alva Edison on the improvement of the telephone. Puskás helped to put the first telephone exchange in the world into operation in Boston. Tivadar Puskás' brother, Ferenc,the representative of the Edison Society in Hungary, set up a similar telephone exchange in Budapest in 1881. After his return from the States, Tivadar Puskás put the Telephonograph into operation, which was used for the transmission of news to subscribers on a local telephone·like line. Music programmes were transmitted from the fourth floor of an apartment house at 22 Rákóczi Street, which later became the first studio of Radio Budapest.Wireless programmes began in l923,when the engineers of the Hungarian Experimental Post Institute first began radio telephonic experiments at the MTI — Hungarian Telegraphic Service — located in the heart of Budapest. In 1924, the experimental institute began the reception of foreign broadcasts with a one tube regenerative set. Meanwhile the radio amateur movement had begun to develop, though it was first occupied with getting the relevant specialized literature and the reception of foreign stations. The first Hungarian radio amateurs built their receivers at home, based on receiver circuit diagrams that appeared in foreign magazines. In 1925 the construction of a PKI 2 kilowatt transmitter began on Csepel Island in Budapest. When it first began to put regular programmes over the air, Radio Budapest had 15,000 subscribers. The majority of them were radio enthusiasts who had built their own receivers and even made the parts themselves. Later. many of them became specialists of the Hungarian radio industry. In one year‘s time the number of subscribers had risen to 50,000.
In 1927 a new, 3 kilowatt Telefunken transmitter was built at Csepel and at the same time the daily broadcasts were lengthened from 4 to 10 hours. That same year the Post Office began building a 20 kilowatt transmitter at Lakihegy, also on Csepel Island. a spot chosen for its geographical location for broadcasting all over the country. The Telefunken transmitter was assembled under the direction of a technician from the Telefunken firm, by the staff of the Lakihegy Post Office. The new transmitter began operating on April 7, 1928. It was of three stages: a cooling system of 2.5 kw producing the base frequency, a modulator stage and a final stage, which functioned with a water cooling tube of 20'kw. The antenna was built on two 150 metre high steel towers. The building of another transmitter, which the press at that time described as "The Giant of Lakihegy", began in 1933 with a transmitter of 120 kilowatts. It was entirely manufactured and constructed by the Hungarian Standard Radio and Electric Company. This new transmitter began operating in December 1933, and was officially named Budapest One. It had seven stages: a modified Heising system modulation with 120 kilowatt tubes, driven into a push, pull through system of stages to the final amplifier stage. In its proportions and method, the new antenna Blow-Knox system was far ahead of countries, which were richer and more developed than Hungary. and at that time it was the highest steel construction on earth. reaching a height of 314 metres. The 480 ton weight of the tower was supported against the wind by a 9 centimetre thick porcelain wall insulator.
The antenna was very good from electrical and broadcasting points of view, because its height surpassed half the transmitted wavelengths. This ensured transmission without fading to the entire country day and night. The 20 kilowatt equipment was modernized and began transmitting the programmes of Radio Budapest Two.
The first experimental broadcasts on short wave started at Székesfehérvár in the beginning of the 1930s. Regular overseas short wave transmissions started on December 23, 1934 in Hungarian and English with two 5 kilowatt output transmitters. The output was later increased to 20 kilowatt. The short wave transmissions of Radio Budapest have a history of more than 50 years...
Unfortunately, during the Second World War, the equipment of Radio Budapest was completely destroyed. The withdrawing Nazi troops not only blew up the installations, but in many cases dismantled the equipment, so that by the end of the war the country was without any radio transmitter whatsoever. The Post Office staff carried out heroic work in reconstructing the transmitters. One part of the equipment, which had been carried off, was found on the Western frontier of the country, and Radio, Budapest was first heard again on May 1, 1945. By the end of 1948, the Hungarian Standard Factory had built the new 135 kilowatt equipment, which has been functioning without interruption ever since. The 314 metre antenna tower was also rebuilt and Budapest Two was also reconstructed at its new location at Szolnok, also with a capacity of 135 kilowatts. In April 1950 a new 100 kilowatt transmitter began experimental broadcasts on short wave. and soon the broadcasts became regular.
The domestic service of Radio Budapest transmits three programmes: the first programme — Radio Kossuth — is aired from a new transmitter at Solt,on medium wave with a 2,000 kw output, as well as on regional FM transmitters. The second programme — Radio Petőfi — is aired by ten medium wave and regional FM stations, and the third programme, Radio Bartók is aired only on FM and VHF.
The FM transmitters air programmes in stereo, and occasionally in mono. The first programme tends to specialize in issues of national interest, round table discussions. talk features, drama and - in general — classical music programmes. The second broadcasts "light programmes" and it transmits nonstop 24 hours a day, while the third programme specializes in high quality stereo classical. jazz and pop music. Radio Budapest has link-ups with international programmes. participates in the work of the UNESCO radio section, and has regular exchanges with the East and West, based on agreements concluded with these countries.
Radio Budapest transmits its domestic and overseas programmes from 26 modern studios, installed mainly with Hungarian made equipment. At present, Radio Budapest transmits daily on 6 SW transmitters in the 49, 41, 31, 25, 19, 16 and 13 metre bands. in six languages: Hungarian, English, German, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. The foreign language broadcasts are transmitted from three transmitters: two transmitters at Székesfehérvár each with 20 kilowatts output. dipole antennas, two transmitters, 100 kilowatts each at Diósd, put into operation in 1983, with omnidirectional and rotary log periodical antennas, and two transmitters at Jászberény, with 250 kilowatt output, directed dipole antennas.
The target areas of our broadcasts are: Europe, North, Central and South America.
Radio Budapest has excellent relations with its listeners. Radio Budapest was the third station in the world to start broadcasting DX programmes in English. Today, — in addition to DX programmes in Eng1ish,we transmit German, Italian and Spanish language DX programmes too, twice a week. These DX programmes have helped to establish long-lasting, good relations with national and international DX organizations and clubs over the past 25 years, and have promoted the development of the international DX-ing movement.
On the initiative of our DXers,our international organization, the Radio Budapest Short Wave Club was set up in 1965, which now has about 12,000 members on all continents acting as official monitors of Radio Budapest and maintaining permanent contact with our station.
In 1980 radio licence fees were dropped in Hungary. According to estimations, there are more than five and a half million receivers in operation in the country with 10 million population.

テーマ : BCL
ジャンル : テレビ・ラジオ





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